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Myopia is a refractive error in the eyes, which tends to increase, especially in students and young workers. Myopia can worsen over time and cause many dangerous complications if not corrected properly.
So What is myopia? Causes, signs and how to prevent myopia? Let’s go with Cfis.edu.vn to find answers to these problems!
What is nearsightedness?
Myopia (or Myopia) is a refractive error of the eye. People with myopia can only see close objects clearly but cannot see distant objects clearly . The higher the nearsightedness, the lower the distance vision.
Classification of myopia degree
Myopia (or Diop) is a parameter to determine the degree of myopia of the eye. Myopia is classified into 3 levels, namely:
- Mild myopia : Below -3.00 Diop
- Moderate Myopia: From -3.25 to -6.00 Diop
- Severe myopia : Over -6.00 Diop
Determining the correct degree of myopia will help you find the right treatment. Regardless of the degree of myopia, you should regularly monitor and know how to control myopia to avoid a rapid increase in intensity , endangering your eyesight.
Subjects at high risk of myopia
Anyone can be nearsighted. Some of the following people may be at higher risk for nearsightedness:
- Inheritance from parents : If both parents are nearsighted, there is a 60% chance that the child will also be born with myopia. If one parent is nearsighted, the rate is 40%.
- Unscientific living habits : People who have a habit of living and working in low light conditions, being inactive, looking at phones and computers too much have a higher risk of myopia than other people.
The danger level of myopia
- At a mild level (Below -3.00 Diop) : People with myopia will experience some inconvenience in daily activities such as driving in the rain, playing outdoor sports activities,…
- At moderate level (From -3.25 to -6.00 Diop) : Having difficulty in living and working, must wear glasses often. If you do not know how to take care and protect your face at this stage, it may progress to severe nearsightedness.
- At severe level (Over -6.00 Diop) : There is a risk of degeneration, dangerous to eye health. People with severe myopia may develop glaucoma, cataracts, retinal detachment, polycythemia vera, and are at risk of vision loss.
Signs of nearsightedness
People with nearsightedness often have common signs such as:
- Blurry vision when looking away.
- Frequently squinting when looking at distant objects.
- Eyes get dry and tired when using electronic devices.
- Continuous blinking and frequent tears.
- At night, vision is worse and encounters some difficulties in controlling traffic.
Children can be nearsighted from birth or due to external factors. To early recognize children with myopia, parents should observe their children from their daily routines. For example:
- When studying and watching TV, children must sit at a close distance to see clearly.
- When looking at a distance, babies often squint.
- Babies feel uncomfortable when exposed to light.
- Babies often rub their eyes and shed tears.
Causes of nearsightedness
Myopia comes from a variety of causes. Specifically:
- Changes in corneal structure : The cornea is more curved than the eyeball, so the observed image does not fall right on the retina but lies forward.
- The eyeball axis is too long : The eyeball axis is longer than normal, which affects the corneal focusing power of the eye, thereby causing the light rays entering the eye to be focused at a point in front of the retina.
- Premature birth : Children born more than 2 weeks premature and weighing less than 2.5kg have a very high risk of myopia.
- Congenital : Inherited from parents with nearsightedness.
- Unscientific working and living habits : Working under low light conditions, frequently using electronic devices for long periods of time with inappropriate distances.
7 popular ways to treat nearsightedness today
Wearing glasses for nearsightedness is the most common and simplest method of nearsightedness treatment today. However, this is only a temporary remedy for nearsightedness and can still cause problems in daily life. Therefore, to cure myopia completely, people often apply the method of nearsightedness.
Here are 7 ways to treat myopia that are popular today and are highly appreciated by many industry experts for their effectiveness:
Wearing Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) contact lenses
Ortho-K contact lenses are usually reserved for people with mild to moderate myopia . This method can be applied to children and those who do not meet the conditions for nearsightedness surgery.
With this method, you will wear a pair of contact lenses at night . After waking up and taking off your glasses, you should be able to see things clearly without your glasses for the rest of the day.
However, this is only a method to help temporarily overcome the symptoms of myopia and help prevent myopia from getting worse without having a radical treatment effect.
Basic Lasik surgery
Lasik surgery is a surgical method to correct nearsightedness suitable for many different conditions of myopia . In this method, the doctor will use a laser to create a new cornea for the patient, helping the patient to achieve the best vision.
The advantage of this method is that the surgical procedure is quick, and the patient’s health and eyesight recover soon . In addition, Lasik surgery has high accuracy and safety, causing less complications after surgery.
Femto Lasik surgery
Femto Lasik surgery is a method of creating corneal flaps by combining the use of femtosecond laser and excimer laser.
The advantage of this method is that the corneal flap is created with stable and uniform thickness, completely eliminating common complications . Moreover, the energy used in the femtosecond laser is very low, so it can ensure the safety of surgery.
Relex Smile surgery
Relex Smile surgery is a method to correct refractive errors without flipping the corneal flap and using a mechanical microsurgery knife. This method is capable of treating refractive errors for patients with high myopia.
Relex Smile surgery has very high safety and accuracy, which can minimize damage to the nervous system in the cornea , ensuring the natural stability of the cornea. In addition, patients after surgery will recover quickly and are less likely to re-appear.
Photo Refractive Keratectomy (PRK)
In PRK (Photo Refractive Keratectomy) surgery, a laser removes the layer of corneal tissue, flattening the cornea and allowing light rays to focus properly on the retina.
The advantage of this method is that it achieves a high level of nearsightedness, most vision will reach 10/10 or at least 5/10 . However, to get the best vision, the eyes will need time from 3 to 6 months. Although this method is very safe for the patient, it is less popular because it is more likely to leave scars than the Lasik method.
Phakic ICL . intraocular surgery
Phakic ICL surgery applies to cases of myopia as high as 18 degrees and thin corneas.
The doctor will place the ICL artificial lens made of collamer in front of the lens of the eye, helping people with nearsightedness see better without glasses.
The advantage of this method is that the patient can recover quickly after surgery, the vision is at its best after the surgery, the dry eye is limited, the patient’s vision at night is improved. worth the first day after surgery.
Lasek is a surgical method applied to people with nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism with thin or steep corneas . For cases with high myopia, Lasek surgery is very safe and effective.
The advantage of this method is that there are almost no bad complications for the eyes after surgery, the patient is recovered quickly , the eyes are not dry, uncomfortable, the eyeball structure is not changed. In particular, the eyes can fully recover after 3 – 6 months . However, the patient will have to wear special contact lenses for 4 days.
How to prevent and care for myopia eyes
Change work habits
- Sit and study and work with the right posture, ensure the correct distance and light when reading, using electronic devices, …
- Give your eyes time to rest after a period of work.
- Stop using electronic devices about 2 hours before bed.
Practice healthy living habits
- Eat scientifically, maintain a habit of exercising, regularly participate in outdoor activities.
- Regularly add foods rich in vitamins that are good for your eyes. Besides, you should learn and consult your doctor about foods that are good for myopia eyes.
Protect your eyes from external influences
- It is advisable to have an eye drop suitable for your eyes ready to use at any time, especially after returning from a trip.
- Wear sunglasses on windy and hot days.
Routine eye exams
- Regularly visit the eye hospital to monitor the condition of the eyes.
- If you feel that your eyes have strange symptoms, you should go to a medical facility for examination as soon as possible.
Wear the right glasses
- People with nearsightedness must wear glasses with the correct degree and apply the time of wearing glasses as recommended by the doctor.
- You should choose a reputable eye clinic to get the best myopia eye exam.
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Source: Hanoi Eye Hospital 2
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