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Although it has been widely used globally for more than 30 years, until now we still do not really understand the mechanism of minoxidil in stimulating hair growth. Let’s find out detailed information about Minoxidil with Cfis.edu.vn.
What is Minoxidil?
Minoxidil is actually an active vasodilator directly used in the treatment of systemic hypertension .
When treated topically, Minoxidil has a pronounced stimulating effect on hair growth through different mechanisms such as stimulating the capillary system to nourish hair follicles to grow densely , providing nutrients to the epithelial cells. tissue differentiation and growth at the hair root, making the hair grow faster, prolonging the hair growth phase.
Minoxidil is usually manufactured with the following concentrations of Minoxidil:
Minoxidil 5% Bailleul solution : Minoxidil 5% (kl/volume)
Minoxidil 2% Bailleul solution : Minoxidil 2% (kl/volume)
Minoxidil 5% Kirkland solution : Minoxidil 5% (kl/volume)
There are several common types of Minodixil, such as:
Minoxidil 5% Bailleul and Minoxidil 2% Bailleul are both in solution form, packaged in a box of 1 x 60ml bottle and manufactured by Opode, France.
Minoxidil 5% Kirkland solution is packaged in a box of 6 x 60ml bottles , manufactured by Kirkland Company, USA.
Uses of Minoxidil in the treatment of hair loss
Minoxidil was approved by the FDA as an over-the-counter medication for hair loss in 1998.
Minoxidil to treat hair loss will be used on the scalp, so the maximum effect of the drug is maximized locally. Minoxidil has the ability to activate and stimulate the secretion of capillary growth factor VFGF , so the local capillary system that nourishes hair follicles will become dense and rich.
Thanks to the effect of dilating blood vessels, nutrients and oxygen from the blood can become more abundant to supply hair follicles and nourish hair fibers . The adequate supply of necessary nutrients will stimulate epithelial cells to differentiate and divide at the hair root. Thereby prolonging the duration of the Anagen phase, making the hair grow out faster.
Some clinical studies have shown that after only 16 weeks of use, the hair has grown by about 63.5 cm . This is indeed an amazing number.
In addition, Minoxidil also increases the axis of the hair shaft, so the hair roots become stronger . For hairs that are in the telogen phase (preparation phase), Minoxidil can restore this hair to the Anagen phase (hair growth phase). Therefore , the Anagen phase seems to be energized, lasts much longer and almost reaches the physiological period.
In addition to the effect on the hair, Minoxidil is also used a lot to stimulate hair growth in men .
Who should take Minoxidil for hair loss?
Minoxidil indicated for people with moderate hair loss in adults , should be used for the following specific cases:
Androgen hair loss
Hair loss in each area
Hair loss with scars
Chronic hair loss phase hair loss
Hair loss due to chemotherapy
Pathology of the hair shaft (chain hair disease, anagen alopecia syndrome)
Stimulates beard and eyebrow growth.
People who are bald for less than 5 years, baldness at the top of the head with a diameter of about 10cm or baldness in the forehead.
Support to improve hair with some cases of sparse hair, weak dry hair that is easy to break.
At what concentration should Minoxidil be used?
The treatment of baldness with Minoxidil depends on the concentration of the active ingredient and the patient’s condition . Normally, Minoxidil is often used in concentrations of 2% and 5% , when used, the patient must spray twice a day, used to maintain the drug until there is a satisfactory hair with a low dose and The interval between doses should be shortened.
The majority of side effects occurred in about 7% of people taking Minoxidil solution at 2% concentration. Minoxidil 5% was also found to be more effective and less likely to cause side effects .
However, for the following people, it is not recommended to use minoxidil in any concentration to treat baldness:
Pregnant and lactating women
Patients with diabetes and a history of blood clotting disorders
People who are taking antibiotics such as aspirin, …
To be safe and have the right dose of medicine for each location, you should consult a specialist, doctor before taking minoxidil .
How to use Minoxidil to treat hair loss?
Depending on different hair problems, minoxidil is used in different doses and concentrations, specifically as follows:
Androgen hair loss
Androgen alopecia is hair loss without scarring, thinning of hair strands . The typical male morphology is an M-shaped, bald spot on the forehead and top of the head . The pattern of hair loss in women is thinning of hair over the entire scalp, mainly at the top, or Christmas tree-shaped hair loss in the forehead and apex, which usually does not cause total baldness.
In an efficacy study using minoxidil:
In men , minoxidil 5% solution should be used for better improvement than other types.
In women , there is an improvement in hair growth when using the same 2% and 5% minoxidil solution, but when using the 5% solution, there are undesirable effects such as contact dermatitis, headache, hirsutism , therefore 2% minoxidil solution is more commonly used.
For maximum effectiveness, minoxidil should be applied evenly to the entire thinning area of the scalp at a dose of:
Solution form : use 1ml (equivalent to 16 drops or 6 sprays) to the scalp x 2 times/day, do not use more than 2ml/day.
Foam form: use ½ bottle cap into the scalp twice a day.
The effect of stimulating hair growth will be seen after at least 4 months of using the drug and need to use minoxidil daily , lasting to maintain the effect, hair will fall back after 3-4 months of stopping the drug . There may be a temporary increase in hair loss after 3-5 weeks of taking the drug as the old hair follicles go into a growth phase to allow new hair follicles to grow.
Hair loss in each area
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease with scarringless hair loss ranging from small patches to total scalp hair loss or, at worst, total body hair loss.
Studies have shown that minoxidil has no significant efficacy in the treatment of alopecia areata, requiring minoxidil as a combination drug to be effective.
Minoxidil 5mg orally has also been used to treat alopecia areata, showing better hair growth, but has side effects including water retention, cardiovascular disease, headaches, and hirsutism.
Hair loss with scars
Scarred hair loss is caused by damage that destroys the hair follicle . These lesions may be primary, consisting of a group of idiopathic disorders, characterized by a central inflammatory process of the hair follicles, or secondary to an inflammatory response of the scalp or by physical trauma—damage to the skin and skin appendages.
Studies show that the use of minoxidil alone has almost no effect in the treatment of scarring alopecia , should be combined in the treatment of scarred hair loss to increase the effectiveness of treatment. sick.
Chronic hair loss (Chronic telogen effluvium)
Alopecia areata is a common non-scarring hair loss condition . Risk factors such as postpartum, severe illness, surgery, diet, medication… Hair loss in the period of cessation of growth lasting more than 6 months is called chronic .
Oral minoxidil can also be effective in treating hair loss, but side effects can include facial hirsutism, fatigue, changes in blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease.
Monilethrix hair disease
Beaded hair disease is an inherited autosomal dominant disease characterized by regular nodules along the length of the hair, dry brittle, broken hair of varying lengths . The most common location is on the scalp, especially in the apex and occipital areas.
There are reports that using minoxidil 2% solution 1ml, used twice a day for 1 year has the ability to improve hair growth in patients with bead hair disease.
Short anagen hair loss syndrome (LAS)
Short anagen alopecia areata is a congenital disease , characterized by short hair and continuous hair loss from birth , due to a decrease in the duration of the anagen phase.
It was reported that a 2-year-old girl with LAS syndrome who used minoxidil 5% topical for a continuous 20-month period experienced an improvement in hair loss and hair growth, which persisted for up to 28 months after discontinuation of the drug. no side effects .
Hair loss due to chemotherapy
Hair loss is one of the common undesirable effects, occurring in about 65% of chemotherapy patients , greatly affecting the quality of life of patients, especially women.
A randomized controlled trial showed that application of 1 ml 2% minoxidil solution to the entire scalp twice daily shortened the duration of hair loss by about 50 days . However, minoxidil 2% solution was not effective in preventing hair loss in patients with gynecological malignancies treated with doxorubicin chemotherapy.
In another study in breast cancer patients applying a 5% minoxidil solution twice daily, there was no satisfactory hair regrowth after 6 months of treatment.
Therefore, the true efficacy of minoxidil in the treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia has not yet been established.
Hair transplantation is the next-choice treatment for many forms of hair loss unresponsive to medical treatments in both men and women . Patients will receive hair transplants taken from a safe area with permanent hair into the hair loss area to increase hair density, hair diameter, significantly improve aesthetics in hair loss patients.
However, there is usually hair loss 1-4 weeks after implantation because the hair follicles enter the telogen phase to switch to a new growth phase, the hair will grow back after about 4 months and continue to grow. grow both in number and size. Minoxidil is used as one of the combined measures to reduce hair loss after hair transplant surgery and to stimulate hair growth.
Stimulates growth of eyebrows and beard
Similar to when used on the scalp, it has an effect on the hair follicles, stimulating hair growth, minoxidil is also expected to stimulate the growth of eyebrows and facial hair.
After 16 weeks of testing on 40 volunteers with sparse eyebrows, the side with sparse eyebrows using minoxidil 2% had a significant improvement compared to the other side. Adverse effects were few and were accepted by the testers.
A 2016 study showed that the 3% minoxidil group had a slightly better effect on beard growth than the group that did not.
However, people who are using minoxidil on the face need to be careful to avoid the medicine getting into the eyes, causing irritation of the conjunctiva and cornea.
Precautions while using Minoxidil
Do not apply to mucous membranes or areas of skin that are thin and prone to sensitivity or irritation.
Avoid wetting the scalp for at least 1 hour after taking minoxidil to give it enough time to absorb.
It is recommended to use minoxidil before using hair gel or hair spray so as not to affect drug absorption
Do not use the drug for pregnant and lactating women.
Do not use in case of severe hair loss , hair loss due to disease or medication. You should consult your doctor before using for people with heart disease.
Do not expose the scalp to the sun while taking this medicine.
When the drug is stopped, hair growth is stopped and will return to its original state after 3-4 months.
The product can catch fire, so avoid smoking, avoid open flame immediately after using the medicine .
What are some possible side effects when taking Minoxidil?
Some people who are allergic to the ingredients in minoxidil may experience some of the following side effects :
Facial edema, body pruritus, sore throat, facial swelling, angioedema, tongue swelling, tongue edema.
Depression, headache, dizziness.
Palpitations, hypotension, dyspnea, chest tightness.
May cause severe eye irritation and even blindness if the medicine gets into the eyes.
Sometimes dry scalp, flaking, temporary hair loss occurs.
In addition, Minoxidil can cause allergic contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis to photos , as well as hirsutism can also occur in women when taking Minoxidil but rarely in men.
Minoxidil is an effective hair loss treatment when used in the correct dosage for different hair problems. It is best to read the instructions for use carefully or follow the instructions of your doctor before using you!
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