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Surely there will be many people who have heard or know the name insulin, especially those related to diabetes. However, most of them may not really understand this familiar insulin. Like other drugs, insulin will also have many different types and have their own roles and especially when used, there will be side effects. Let’s consult now.
What is insulin?
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the “islet cells” of the pancreas and responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates . In addition, insulin also works to help convert fatty tissue and liver into ATP energy to provide for the body’s vital activities . Insulin is synthesized in the beta cells of the pancreas by the action of the protein synthesis machinery in the cells.
What is the role of insulin?
According to the advice of Master – Doctor Huynh An Thien – Department of Examination and Internal Medicine, Vinmec Da Nang International General Hospital, said: Insulin is the only hormone of the body that has the effect of lowering blood sugar through the the metabolism of glucose, lipid and protein in the body, specifically as follows:
– Effects of insulin on glucose (starch) metabolism: Increases glycogen storage and muscle glucose degradation : After a meal, blood sugar levels are elevated, stimulating insulin secretion, leading to increased glucose transport. into cells. If the muscle is inactive, glucose is converted to a stored form, glycogen.
The body will be in a coma or worse, it will die if the blood glucose is high, but the glucose cannot enter the cells, it will lead to an increase in blood osmotic pressure.
Insulin also helps convert glucose in the liver into glycogen for storage. When blood glucose is reduced, affecting insulin secretion is inhibited, glycogen is broken down to release glucose into the blood.
– Effects of insulin on lipid (fat) metabolism: Insulin helps to increase the synthesis of fatty acids from glucose and transport them to adipose tissue. A lack of insulin leads to an increase in glycerol and fatty acids in the blood. Increased levels of fat in the blood lead to atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes. Therefore, insulin is really essential for the body.
– Effects of insulin on protein (protein) metabolism: Insulin increases protein synthesis and storage in almost every cell of the body. The body will lose weight if there is a deficiency of insulin and increase proteolysis and reduce the amount of protein in tissues. Because of that, people with diabetes will eat a lot but lose weight quickly and become thin.
Types of Insulin
In the guidelines of the Ministry of Health, insulin is an important drug in the treatment of diabetes. There will be 4 specific types of insulin as follows:
Short-acting and rapid-acting insulin: This is usually injected directly under the skin and peaks in absorption within 1 hour.
Moderate-acting insulin: Thanks to the combination of 2 parts of insulin zinc soluble with protamine zinc Insulin , this type of insulin will have a lasting effect of 10-20 hours . This type needs to be injected twice a day to be effective.
Slow-acting and long-acting insulin: This type can last from 20 to 22 hours , so it only needs to be injected once a day and is usually used in the evening.
Mixed insulin: This is a combination of 2 types of rapid-acting and long-acting insulin in the same or the same injection and is usually used 2-3 times a day before meals and has an effect of about 12 hours. hour.
However, to know which type of insulin you are suitable for, you need to see your doctor for more specific and specific advice to avoid bad cases affecting your health.
Side effects of insulin
A small number of patients taking insulin will have some side effects such as allergies, hypoglycemia, somogyi phenomenon, adipose tissue dystrophy.
In addition, there are some other side effects such as weight gain, headache and nausea, interactions with other drugs.
Source: Vinmec International General Hospital
Above is some information that Cfis.edu.vn provides you about Insulin. Hopefully through this article you will have some more knowledge about the effects of insulin on the body in general and diabetes in particular.
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