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Surely you have all heard of fine dust through the mass media. So what is fine dust? What are the effects of fine dust? How to prevent it? All will be revealed in the article below.
What is fine dust?
Fine dust is microscopic dust particles , which are difficult to detect, consisting of inorganic or organic molecules in liquid or solid form suspended in the air.
The origin of fine dust comes from dust, soil, soot, etc. But it is mainly due to the smoke of burning organic fuels in industrial activities or emissions from vehicles and garbage. , Forest fires,…
Fine dust in English is called Particulate Matter, abbreviated as PM. Its size is very diverse and is often listed after the phrase PM with the unit of measurement is µm (micrometer).
Common types of fine dust
Based on the size of the fine dust particles, it is divided into 3 common types:
Fine dust PM10
The size of the dust particles is from 2.5 – 10 µm , much smaller than the diameter of a human hair (50 – 70 µm). Therefore, PM10 fine dust is difficult to detect with the naked eye .
When we breathe in this dust, they only accumulate on the lungs , so they are not as dangerous as PM2.5 fine dust particles.
Fine dust PM2.5
Compared with PM10 fine dust, PM2.5 fine dust is much smaller in size, about 1.0-2.5µm, as small as 1/20th of a human hair . They are made of carbon, nitrogen and many other metal compounds.
These dust particles are warned by experts as having the highest level of danger . Because when we breathe in these dust particles, they can enter our bloodstream , even some dust molecules are toxic, making them penetrate deeper into the bloodstream.
Besides, these dust particles also cause nasal irritation and respiratory inflammation, harmful to the human body, especially young children.
Fine dust PM1.0
PM1.0 fine dust, also known as superfine dust, was recently discovered by scientists.
They are microscopic in size, less than 1.0µm . When they enter the body, they will easily attack the alveoli, even adversely affecting the cells or DNA of the human body.
They often appear on days with dry air or low temperatures, causing many dangerous diseases to the lungs.
Harm of fine dust
Causes respiratory diseases
Fine dust contains high levels of CO, SO2 or NO2, which causes cells to lack oxygen, adversely affecting the lungs.
If we are long-term exposure to the environment with fine dust, there will be a risk of respiratory diseases , such as chronic bronchitis, asthma, impaired lung function, even cancer. lung cancer.
Toxic to other organ systems
While the respiratory system is the organ system most affected by fine dust, other organ systems such as the nervous system, the circulatory system, etc. are equally affected.
- For the nervous system , air pollution creates feelings of discomfort, suffocation and difficulty breathing, affecting our living habits. Not only that, they also affect the brain, increasing the risk of stroke, memory loss, depression, …
- For the circulatory system, fine dust enters the alveoli, passes through the air-blood barrier and enters the circulatory system, where they will burst blood vessels, leading to blockages, causing myocardial infarction.
Adverse effects on human cells or DNA
Fine dust also causes the body to produce free radicals. These free radicals attack cells and molecules that are important to the body, including DNA.
This will cause the body to produce changes, increase the risk of mutations and even form cancerous tumors.
Harmful to the health of infants and young children
For pregnant women, long-term exposure to fine dust will harm the health of the fetus, leading to weight loss, autism, nervous breakdown, … when the baby is born.
How to prevent fine dust
Wear a dust mask
With a regular mask, it cannot prevent fine dust from entering our body. So, use specialized ultra-fine dust masks such as N95 masks or we can also wear 2 interlocking medical masks.
Using dust filters in the house
Because fine dust is very small and almost invisible, it is unlikely that there is no fine dust in our homes. Therefore, we should equip an air purifier to improve indoor air quality.
Besides, we can also plant more indoor plants to improve air quality even though their filtering efficiency is not as good as that of machines.
Eat foods that contain antioxidants
We can add antioxidants to the body by drinking green tea, eating lots of vegetables and fruits. This will help limit the production of free radicals in the body caused by inhaling fine dust.
Use public transport
The use of public transport also contributes to limiting air pollution caused by emissions from vehicles.
How to view fine dust index by area
The Area Fine Dust Index (AQI) (short for Air Quality Index) is used to assess air quality and is classified into color groups of each area as follows:
IQAir website on phone or computer
We can monitor and update the index in real time through the IQAir website.
In addition, we can also refer to the ranking of polluted areas to take timely measures to prevent fine dust.
Applications to measure air pollution index
We can use air pollution index measurement applications such as AirVisual or PAM Air to view the real-time fine dust index in a simple and convenient way.
Above is the information about fine dust that Cfis.edu.vn wants to share with you. Hope you will have the most effective ways to prevent fine dust with yourself!
Source: Health and Life Newspaper
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