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In life, the preparation of first aid knowledge for cases of injury, fainting, … is extremely necessary. In particular, artificial respiration is the most basic technique that you need to know. Let’s find out what this method is and how to do it with Cfis.edu.vn!
What is artificial respiration?
CPR is a first aid technique for patients who have stopped breathing for some reason. The main purpose of this method is to transfer oxygen from the outside into the lungs and bring oxygen from the lungs out to provide oxygen to the victim.
If the victim stops breathing for too long, it will lead to a lack of oxygen and cause the death of cells inside the body, especially nerve cells. Therefore, CPR needs to be performed immediately before the victim is taken to medical centers.
Causes of suffocation and signs to know
Before knowing the ways of CPR, we need to know some causes of suffocation:
- Drowning: A phenomenon that occurs when water overflows into the lungs, obstructing the passage of air into the lungs.
- Inhalation of toxic gas: The process of suffocation occurs when the patient inhales not when there is a lack of oxygen, but instead some toxic gas such as CO.
- Burial: The condition of the victim being buried after a number of accidents such as earthquakes, tunnel collapses, etc. causes the chest to be compressed, the nose and mouth are filled with sand and soil, the breathing process is not favorable. .
- Upper airway obstruction: This is when the airways are blocked and breathing is obstructed.
Some signs to recognize when the victim is suffocating:
- The victim lies still or is in a coma, with no sign of waking up.
- The skin turns white or purplish.
- There were no signs of pulse and heart rate.
- Hands and feet become cold.
- There are no signs of breathing, and the chest or abdominal wall is immobile.
General principles of artificial respiration
Although there are many different methods of CPR, here are some general principles to follow when performing:
- Eliminate causes of asphyxiation before administering CPR to the victim.
- Perform artificial respiration for the patient as soon as possible, if left for a long time, it will lead to brain death and low recovery prognosis.
- CPR must be continued continuously until the victim is able to breathe on his own or for the length of time specified in each case.
- The technique when performed must be correct, with sufficient force and at the right frequency.
- The environment must be ventilated, avoid crowded, stuffy and cold windy places.
Methods of artificial respiration
According to Master, Doctor Tong Van Hoan – Emergency Resuscitation Doctor – Emergency Resuscitation Department – Vinmec International General Hospital Da Nang below are the popular methods of artificial respiration:
Methods of artificial respiration and massage of the heart outside the thorax
This method is also known as breath breathing and here are the steps:
- Place the casualty on his back in a well-ventilated area, place a pillow under the neck so that the head is slightly tilted, and loosen the clothing and belt.
- Support clear airway by removing foreign objects in the nose and mouth. If there is sputum or mucus from the nose or mouth, wipe and clean the victim with a towel.
- Carry out resuscitation for the victim: One hand covers the nose, the other hand grabs the lower jaw and pulls down to open the victim’s mouth. Take a deep breath, then close the victim’s mouth and blow all the air in. It can be done directly or indirectly through a thin cloth placed over the victim’s mouth.
- The process of artificial respiration should be performed continuously and always observe whether the victim’s chest moves up and down or not. The frequency of implementation for adults and children over 8 years old is 20 times/minute. For children under 8 years old, 20-30 times/minute.
- If the victim has a state of respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest, external thoracic massage must be performed in combination with rescue breaths with the principle of 30:2 (30 compressions, 2 breaths).
- Carry out this method until the victim breathes on his own, then take him to the nearest medical facility, if done within 30 minutes without results, it should be stopped because the patient may have died.
Nielsen CPR method
This is the appropriate method for drowning victims, it is necessary to carry out the expulsion of water from the victim’s chest.
- Make sure the airway is clear and free of foreign bodies, phlegm, and mucus.
- Place the casualty on his stomach with his head tilted to one side and rest his head on the victim’s hands.
- Create exhalation: Press both palms firmly against the victim’s shoulder blades. The rescuer leans forward slightly, arms straight (perpendicular to the chest wall) and then suddenly released.
- Create the inhalation: The performer grabs the victim’s hand at the elbow and pulls the hand up towards the head (but does not lift the head) then returns to the original position.
- The frequency of execution is about 10-12 times/minute.
Sylvester artificial respiration method
It is a method used when the victim is buried or cannot lie on his stomach such as pregnant women and people with abdominal trauma.
- Make sure there are no foreign bodies and mucus and mucus in the victim’s airway.
- Place the casualty on his back with his head turned to one side, place a pillow or cushion under the victim’s shoulders, head slightly tilted back, chin up. The performer kneels at the victim’s head.
- Create exhalation: The first aider grasps the lower third of the victim’s forearms and folds them in front of the chest . The performer leans forward slightly, arms straight and presses firmly against the victim’s chest wall to expel air.
- Create inhalation: The first aider sits down and pulls the victim’s arms towards the head, and at the same time falls back.
- The frequency of execution is about 15-20 times/minute.
Schaeffer’s artificial respiration method
- Place the victim on his/her stomach on a flat surface, arms raised above the head, face turned to one side, ensuring the airway is clear.
- The first-aider sits behind the victim’s back, puts his hands on his back just above the victim’s pelvis and spreads his hands.
- Create exhalation: The performer lifts his body slightly, pressing his hands firmly on the victim’s back for about 2 seconds, helping to push the diaphragm upwards and bring the air out.
- Create the inhalation: Slowly let go of the hands completely off the victim’s back so that the diaphragm gradually lowers, natural air enters to help the lungs expand.
- The respiratory rate is about 15-20 times/minute.
Evolution of artificial respiration
- Victims regain the ability to breathe on their own, breathing movements gradually recover
- The breathing rate on recovery will be a bit weak and the rescuer should continue CPR until the victim breathes harder and deeper.
- Take the victim to the nearest medical facility
- Bad progress
Stop CPR only when vital signs worsen:
- Dilated pupils
- There are bruises on the skin
- Body temperature drops below 25 degrees Celsius
- Stiff limbs, no vital signs
Possible mistakes when giving artificial respiration
- During respiration, the operator may appear lightheaded and dizzy. At that time, it is necessary to stop breathing for a while and regulate breathing again in a few seconds.
- In case the emergency responders are concerned about aesthetics or hygiene, they can clean the face or cover the victim’s face with a clean handkerchief.
- Either place the casualty’s head on its back or the rescuer blows too hard into the victim’s lungs. At this time, the victim’s stomach is pumped up, while the victim’s breathing is still weak, jeopardizing the current condition.
The above article is information about artificial respiration methods and how to do it. Hope the article will be useful to you and don’t forget to follow Cfis.edu.vn for more knowledge!
Source: Vinmec International General Hospital
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